Thus as shown in FIG. 40, the center of gravity of the vehicle represented as CGv is shown relative to the center of gravity of the rider's CGR where CGv is at a position X where X is a range of approximately 30-40% of the vehicle wheelbase W. In the embodiment shown, W equals 105 inches. As shown, CGr is rearwardly of CGv as well as slightly above CGv.
"Although not specifically shown, vehicle 2 anticipates having an engine in the form of an automotive style engine, for example a GM 2.4L Ecotec LE5 (P/N 12619532) or equivalent, with a complementary manual transmission, such as an Aisin AR5 MA5 (P/N 24240205), where engine and transmission are directly coupled to each other. It is also anticipated that engine is directly attached by way of engine mounts to mounting plates 72 (FIG. 4). Thus as shown in FIG. 4, the upstanding sidewalls 60 define an engine receiving area intermediate to sidewalls 60 and the sidewalls 60 also define suspension mounts on the outside of the sidewalls 60. The engine is placed in the vehicle at a position where the vehicle is the widest."
"Many other features of the vehicles 2 or 502 are also possible. First, while it was discussed that the motive source was an engine, that is an internal combustion engine, the motive source could be powered in any manner. For example, the power source could be a hybrid engine, or battery powered, or any other power source contemplated. Also the steering was described as rack and pinion; the steering could be electronic power steering. It is also anticipated that the vehicle will have several electronic features, namely:
ABS: Antilock Brake System. This system will modulate brake pressure during brake events to prevent excessive wheel slip.
TCS: Traction Control System. This system will prevent excessive rear wheel slip during acceleration events by modulation of engine throttle and/or brake.
MSR: System prevents excessive rear wheel slip during events that lock the rear wheel on a slippery surface when a lower gear is engaged or load is abruptly changed. This is accomplished by engine throttle modulation.
EBD: Electronic Brake Distribution. Brake pressure will be modulated to keep rear wheel slip at same level as front.
VSC: Vehicle Stability Control. In a cornering event if the yaw rate of the vehicle exceeds an expected value based on steering wheel angle and vehicle speed, the throttle will be modulated and outside front brake applied to keep the vehicle traveling in the intended direction.
In that regard, vehicle 2 or 502 has an electronic stability control system which includes a wheel speed sensor at each of the two front wheels and one at the single rear wheel, a steering angle sensor, a multi-axis sensor in the form of yaw rate and acceleration, and an electronic control unit and/or engine control module for operation of the vehicle. Communication between the various sensors and the engine could be by way of a CAN network bus, which could follow the J1939 protocol.
In particular the electronic stability control provides correction to the vehicle in the condition of over steering. In an over steering condition, the front wheels are turned inwardly to a curve to steer at a radius which is smaller than what can be handled given the speed of the vehicle. In this case the yaw velocity is too large and the rear axle slides outwardly away from the curve. In this case, stabilization is made by brake intervention at the curve outer front wheel, most likely the outer front wheel. The stability control unit detects vehicle deviation from the intended vehicle course, which sends a torque request to the engine control module to reduce engine torque, which is typically done through a throttle control.
While this invention has been described as having an exemplary design, the present invention may be further modified within the spirit and scope of this disclosure. This application is therefore intended to cover any variations, uses, or adaptations of the invention using its general principles. Further, this application is intended to cover such departures from the present disclosure as come within known or customary practice in the art to which this invention pertains."